PANIC NMR Validation Group – Website, Meetings and Organization

Validation of NMR: No Need to PANIC - Workshop held February 13, 2015, La Jolla, CA, U.S.A In conjunction with the 3rd PANIC conference in La Jolla, California, a 1-day NMR validation workshop was held that attracted approximately 80 interested participants. The agenda of the meeting is provided at this link (http://www.nmrvalidation.org/index.php/events/event-review) and registered participants can now download the presentations presented at the meeting. At the meeting it was decided to proceed with the idea of founding an organization dedicated to the development of validate NMR methods for use throughout all industry sectors. Organizational Scope: NMR spectroscopy provides a means to evaluate material with high compound and high material specificity. Information as to the chemical structure, stereochemistry, quantity, material composition, and material identity is encoded in the NMR spectrum. The high reproducibility of NMR spectroscopy from instrument to instrument and lab to lab makes NMR an excellent tool for material validation. Approaches to utilizing NMR as a material validation tool include using (1) targeted approaches, the identification and quantification of specific components, and (2) non-targeted approaches, the use of chemometric methods to evaluate the spectrum as a whole. Efforts to increase the number and the speed of validated NMR methods…

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PNA to Present 4 Topics at the 2015 ACS North East Regional Meeting

John Edwards of Process NMR Associates will be presenting 4 papers at the 2015 ACS Northeast Regional Meeting that will be held in Ithaca, NY, June 10-13, 2015. ABSTRACT ID: 2283171 ABSTRACT TITLE: 1H qNMR of Alcoholic Cider - Analysis of Small Molecule and Residual Sugar Chemistry (final paper number: 43) SESSION: Food Chemistry SESSION TIME: 5:00 PM - 9:00 PM PRESENTATION FORMAT: Poster DAY & TIME OF PRESENTATION: Wednesday, June, 10, 2015, 5:00 PM - 9:00 PM ROOM & LOCATION: Emerson Suites - Campus Center ABSTRACT ID: 2283063 ABSTRACT TITLE: Nutritional Supplement and Diesel Fuel Application Development for Benchtop NMR Systems Operating at 42, 60, and 80 MHz – Equivalency with Supercon NMR (final paper number: 336) SESSION: Analytical Chemistry SESSION TIME: 9:00 AM - 11:30 AM PRESENTATION FORMAT: Oral DAY & TIME OF PRESENTATION: Friday, June, 12, 2015 from 9:45 AM - 10:05 AM ROOM & LOCATION: 222 - Williams Hall ABSTRACT ID: 2283105 ABSTRACT TITLE: Survey of Low Field NMR Spectrometer Platforms for Successful Screening of Sexual Enhancement and Weight Loss Supplements for Adulteration with Drugs and Drug Analogs (final paper number: 386) SESSION: Medicinal Chemistry SESSION TIME: 1:00 PM - 3:20 PM PRESENTATION FORMAT: Oral DAY…

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Polyalphaolefin Hydrogenation – Residual Olefin Analysis – 1H NMR versus Bromine Number

1H NMR is an excellent tool for monitoring the residual olefin content of polymers after hydrogenation reactions. The fact that the olefin fall in a unique region of the spectrum means that it is a straightforward measurement to quantify the %H present as olefin or to correlate that olefin content with other analyses such as bromine number. Here is an example of a polyalphaolefin residual olefin analysis. The olefin proton content (%H) was plotted against bromine number values obtained on each of the samples. A linear correlation was obtain but two different correlations were observed that were dependent on the viscosity index of the polyalphaolefin being analyzed. Figure 1 shows the 1H NMR spectra obtained on neat samples on a Picospin-80 spectrometer operating at 82.3 MHz. The methyl and methlene protons of the polymer backbone are plainly seen and the olefin and alpha-olefin protons are observed.   Figure 2 shows the linear correlation between %H olefin and bromine number with the two correlations caused by different VI grade being indicated. The analysis shows that for the two viscosity grades the grade can be identified from the linear correlation that the data falls onto and the %H olefins content can directly…

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Residual Catalytic Cracker – Heavy Petroleum Feedstream Properties from 1H NMR at 43 MHz

Back in October we presented a talk at Gulf Coast Conference that concerned the prediction of the chemical and physical properties of heavy petroleum feeds being converted to higher value product in a residual catalytic cracker (RCC). Over the years we have analyzed these materials by 300 and 60 MHz NMR and obtained good PLS-regression models that can adequately predict properties for real-time process control and optimization in a petroleum refinery. With the advent of a large number of new benchtop NMR systems we have been convincing ourselves that these types of analyses can be performed by systems such as the Magritek Spinsolve 43 MHz. We ran a series of samples that had been sitting around our lab for 15 years by dissolving them at about 50 volume% in a 50/50 CDCl3/CS2 solvent system. For each sample we had laboratory test data for a number of chemical and physical properties of interest to process engineers. We regressed the lab data variability against the variability in the Magritek 43MHz 1H NMR spectra and obtained cross-validated PLS models. The presentation material is given here at this link - Gulf Conference Presentation - 43 MHz RCC Feedstream Regression Models

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Nutritional Supplement and Diesel Fuel Application Development for Benchtop NMR Systems Operating at 42, 60, and 80 MHz – Equivalency with Supercon NMR

Benchtop high-resolution NMR systems are available at a number of field strengths and probe configurations. However beyond the obvious academic instruction market for these instruments very few applications have been demonstrated across all available platforms and thus proving the general applicability of benchtop NMR technology to industrial quality control. We will present two chemometric-based applications that have been developed at 4 different field strengths utilizing Varian Mercury 300 MHz, Magritek Spinsolve 42 MHz, Aspect AI 60 MHz, and Thermo Picospin 80 MHz NMR systems. Partial-least-squares (PLS) regression correlations were obtained on all 4 platforms relating to: 1) Omega-3 fatty acid composition of samples taken from various points in a nutritional supplement manufacturing process. Excellent correlations were obtained on all 4 NMR instruments proving that NMR technology is applicable to in-lab, at-line. or on-line analysis of fish oil derived omega-3 fatty acid supplements. The 40 second NMR analysis effectively replaces a 60+ minute GC analysis. 2) Physical and chemical property determination of diesel fuels where excellent correlations were obtained between 1H NMR variability and parameters such as density, aromatic content by GC, hydrogen content by 1H TD-NMR (ASTM D7171 method), and sulfur content. Many more physical and chemical properties can be…

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Comparison of 1H NMR Spectra Obtained at 42, 60, 82, and 300 MHz – Fish Oil Omega-3 Ethyl Ester Supplement Example

Process NMR Associates is currently developing NMR applications based on direct measurement of chemometric modeling on NMR data obtained on numerous NMR platforms. Our intention is to develop solutions that can be executed on any NMR platform. With this in mind we are currently developing a fish oil analysis application that can provide the EPA and DHA omega-3 fatty acid content of fish oil supplements manufactured by an ethyl ester esterification process. We have obtained data at 42 MHz, 60 MHz, 82 MHz and 300 MHz. The chemometric modelling yielded PLS models for all 4 field strengths that yield effectively the same result - DHA can be measured to +/- ~1.1 wt% and EPA can be measured to +/- ~2.2 wt% by a 40 second 1H NMR measurement. THe correlation is derived from a  regression of the 1H NMR variability with primary GC analysis values. This analysis has been shown for the 300 and 60 MHz data in a previous post on this blog. The same analysis was also obtained, with similar results, on 42 and 82 MHz platforms proving that individual applications can be automated and provided at all relevant frequencies of NMR analysis whether on superconducting lab systems or permanent…

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Special Issue on Benchtop NMR systems in Wiley Journal “Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry” – please consider submitting a technical or review paper

I was just asked by Roberto Gil (Carnegie Mellon) to pull together a special issue if Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry" on the topic of Benchtop NMR. I will personally be hitting up everyone I know who is working in this area to provide technical papers on their work in this area. I also wanted to extend an invitation to the members of this group to submit a paper for this special issue. All topics will be considered but I would like to stay away from "traditional" 1H TD-NMR and restrict 1H TD-NMR applications to new approaches. On the high resolution side (45, 60, 80 MHz) I am hoping that applications with some real meat might be submitted rather than brochure type papers with just spectra of solvents and small molecules. Please feel free to contact me directly if you have ideas on submissions. My contact information is listed below. Sincerely, -- John C. Edwards, Ph.D. Manager, Process and Analytical NMR Services Process NMR Associates, LLC 87A Sand Pit Rd, Danbury, CT 06810, USA Tel: +1 (203) 744-5905 Cell: +1 (203) 241-0143 Skype: jcepna e-mail: john@process-nmr.com

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Comparison of 60 and 300 MHz 1H NMR Data – Prediction Models for EPA and DHA Omega-3 Fatty Acid Content

At the recent ACS NERM 2013 meeting in New Haven CT, John Edwards gave a talk on the comparison of 60 and 300 MHz 1H NMR based predictive models for EPA and DHA omega-3 fatty acid content in a fish oil manufacturing process. The presentation can be found here..... PDF Presentation Note - spectra are read into the chemometrics software backwards ...

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Process NMR Associates and Pfizer Present Joint Poster on Reaction Monitoring at PittCon

Pfizer has included the Aspect-60 MHz NMR system in their reaction monitoring investigations. The analysis was performed on reactions that were monitored in parallel by a Bruker 400 MHz NMR system. The poster of the initial results will be presented by Dr David Foley of Pfizer at this weeks PittCon in Philadelphia. The presentation is available here.

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SMASH Posters Cover Aloe Vera NMR Test Method, Heavy Petroleum Average Molecule Characterization, and 60 MHz Permanent Magnet NMR Applications

Quantitative 1H qNMR Method for Complex Mixture Analysis: Determination of Acetylated Polysaccharides, Glucose, Maltodextrin, Isocitrate, Preservatives, Additives and Degradation Products in Aloe Vera Leaf Juice - Raw Material and Consumer Products Practical Applications of Compact, Cryogen-Free High-Resolution 60 MHz Permanent Magnet NMR Systems for Reaction Monitoring and Online/At-Line Process Control Calculation of Average Molecular Descriptions of Heavy Petroleum Hydrocarbons by Combined Analysis by Quantitative 13C and DEPT-45 NMR Experiments

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Process NMR Associates to Contribute Invited Talk and 3 Posters at the 1st Practical Applications of NMR in Industry Conference (PANIC), October 15-17, Schaumburg IL

News - Dr. John Edwards of Process NMR Associates will be presenting the following 3 posters and invited talk at the 1st Practical Applications of NMR in Industry Conference (PANIC), Schaumburg, IL, October 15-17, 2012 Invited Talk On-line Applications of 60 MHz High-Resolution NMR Systems in Industry: Direct Measurements, Chemometric Correlations, and Multiple Spectroscopy Data Fusion John C. Edwards Process NMR Associates, LLC, Danbury, CT For the past two decades high resolution 1H NMR systems combined with chemometric analyses have been utilized in refineries and chemical plants to predict the chemical and physical properties of process streams and finished products. The ability to perform these analyses with on-line NMR instrumentation has allowed tighter control and optimization of the plant to obtain margin improvement, reduced reworking of off-specification materials, and higher yields of finished products. Examples of refinery and petrochemical applications will be given along with some examples of multinuclear NMR applications utilizing 31P and 19F NMR. The permanent magnet based 1.5 Tesla NMR instruments will be described along with a description of how these compact, cryogen-free NMR systems can be utilized on the bench-top or in the fume-hood as continuous or stop-flow chemistry sensors for reaction monitoring, mixing/dilution monitoring, or…

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Process NMR Associates to Present 3 Posters at SMASH NMR Conference, September 9-12, 2012

News - John Edwards of Process NMR Associates will be presenting the following 3 posters at SMASH NMR Conference, Providence RI, September 9-12, 2012. Process NMR Associates will also have a vendor table where John will be available to discuss the exciting range of high and low resolution permanent magnet NMR products available through the company and it's partners Aspect AI and Cosa-Xentaur. Poster 1 Quantitative Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry (1H-NMR) for Determination of Acetylated Polysaccharides, Glucose, Maltodextrin, and Isocitrate in Aloe Vera Leaf Juice John C. Edwards, Process NMR Associates, Danbury, Connecticut Aloe Vera is a botanical component that is used widely in the cosmetic, natural product, herbal supplement, and pharmaceutical industries. The widespread use of Aloe Vera has lead to the need to adequately analyze the authenticity, quality, and quantity of the various components present in this material. The qNMR method described here was developed and validated by Process NMR Associates (Danbury, CT) and is similar to an independently validated method developed by Jiao et al [1]. The method described is to be included in an upcoming Monograph on Aloe Vera published by the American Herbal Pharmacopoeia. The method can be used for the detection and quantitation…

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Process NMR (High, Mid and Low Resolution) Session at Practical Applications of NMR in Industry Conference

John Edwards (PNA) and Mark Zell (Pfizer) are co-chairs of a session of practical NMR applications in process control, reaction monitoring, miniaturized instrumentation, TD-NMR. John Edwards is also co-chairing a session (with Kathleen Farley of Pfizer) on quantitative NMR that contains an excellent talk on quantitative online NMR spectroscopy. Speakers in our sessions include: Session: On-Line/In-Line NMR and Time-Domain NMR Session Chairs: John Edwards, Process NMR Associates and Mark Zell, Pfizer, Inc. On-Line Applications of High-Resolution NMR in the Petroleum Industry - Direct Measurement, Chemometric Correlation, and Multiple Spectroscopy Data Fusion - John Edwards, Process NMR Associates, Danbury, CT USA Online NMR Reaction Monitoring in Pharmaceutical Process Development - David Foley, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, CT USA Beyond Hammers in Search of Nails: An instrument technologist's perspective on developing miniaturized NMR spectrometers for new applications - Andrew McDowell, ABQMR, Inc., Albuquerque, NM USA LF-NMR Studies of Mechanically Induced Gel Syneresis in Cheese - Soren Engelsen, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark NMR Quantification of Structural Features in Food Science and Technology - John van Duynhoven, Unilever – Vlaardingen, The Netherlands Rheological Measurements on Non-Newtonian Fluids Using a Process Compatible MRI - Michael McCarthy, University of California at Davis, Davis,…

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Newsflash: For Immediate Release – Process NMR Associates and Quantum Tessera Enter into Strategic Partnership

Process NMR Associates, LLC, Danbury, CT and Quantum Tessera Consulting, LLC, Collegeville, PA, USA Process NMR Associates, LLC (LLC) and Quantum Tessera Consulting, LLC are pleased to announce they have entered into a Strategic Partnership. This partnership will leverage PNA’s experience applying magnetic resonance techniques to such processes as reaction monitoring, active ingredient quality control, and the petroleum industry. PNA’s MR expertise extends into time-domain NMR, low field high resolution NMR (60MHz and 300MHz) applications, and chemometrics. Quantum Tessera brings its knowledge and experience about large molecule process development. Together, Process NMR Associates and Quantum Tessera can deliver higher value to clients process and manufacturing problems. Process NMR Associates and Quantum Tessera’s first project will be focused initially on NMR-based solutions for bioprocess monitoring and biofuel manufacture. Dr. John Edwards, Principal and Manager of Analytical Services at PNA comments, "The combination of Quantum Tessera Consulting and PNA will allow both companies to expand their customer base and allow them to offer a wider range of robust and innovative solutions to our clients.” Dr. Edward Zartler, CSO of Quantum Tessera, adds, “Process NMR associates has always led the field in NMR-based process analytics. This Strategic Partnership will result in synergies between…

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Whole Leaf Marker and Maltodextrin in Aloe Vera Raw Materials – Dry Weight Quantity – Extended 1H NMR Analysis Method

Process NMR Associates has developed an extension of its 1H NMR analysis of Aloe Vera raw materials and products analysis. Powder aloe vera raw materials (100x/200x) can be analyzed directly and juice samples (1x, 5x, 10x, commercial products) must be freeze dried for this analysis. The whole leaf markers utilized in this test to indicate the presence of whole leaf material are iso-citrate and iso-citrate lactone which are formed in the green leaf part of the aloe plant as part of the citric acid cycle. It is possible to assign and quantify the following components of an aloe vera juice or powder: * aloe vera components: acemannan, glucose, malic acid * whole leaf markers: isocitrate, iso-citrate lactone, citric acid * degradation products: lactic acid, acetic acid, fumaric acid, pyruvic acid, formic acid, succinic acid, and ethanol * adulterants: maltodextrin * preservatives: sorbate, benzoate * additives: sucrose, fructose, glycine, flavorants (contain ethanol and propylene glycol) For the components above it is possible to obtain a wt% of that component in a juice sample - the freeze drying process is then used to determine the wt% solids in the juice and the dry weight concentrations of the organic components in the solids.…

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1H NMR – 60 MHz Permanent Magnet System – Reaction Monitoring

Below are a few further examples of acetylation reactions of acetic anhydride with an excess of alcohol. The alcohols include tert-butanol and isopropanol. Reaction 1: Acetylation of t-butyl alcohol with acetic anhydride in the presence of acid. Reaction 2: Acetylation of Isopropanol with acetic anhydride in the presence of acid. Reaction 3: Methoxyacetone and hydroxylamine reaction in methanol to form an Oxime Resolution of the methylenes in the methoxyacetone and the reaction product is readily observed. All the above experiments were performed in an NMR tube. We are currently looking at the same reactions under flow conditions utilizing a HPLC pump and PEEK tubing to transport sample to the NMR probe at 5 ml/min.

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Chevron Installs Low Field NMR Application: 31P NMR Analysis of Phosphoric Acid Strength in Alkylation Process

New Flash: Chevron purchases high resolution 31P NMR system for at-line analysis of a phosphoric acid catalyzed alkylation process. The Chevron Richmond Refinery needed a simple and quick measurement of phosphoric acid strength and quality. Prior analysis procedures included transporting samples several miles from the refinery process to the technical center in order to perform the 31P NMR analysis on a high field superconducting NMR system. This process was also complicated by the fact that the process operators were not able to perform the analyses on the conventional high field NMR systems (400 MHz for 1H, 161 MHz for 31P) themselves, but had to wait for NMR technician and instrument availability. If sample analyses was required after research facility working hours the NMR lab technicians were required to come in and run the NMR for the process operators. A simple permanent magnet bench-top NMR system has now been placed in the existing process lab adjacent to the process unit control room. The NMR samples are placed in specially designed 9 mm (diameter) x 50 mm (length) sample tubes in order to accommodate sample handling issues (high viscosity sample with no solvents being added) and are place easily into the NMR…

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Reaction Monitoring Using NMR and Vibrational Spectroscopy – RSC Conference

Dr. John Edwards of Process NMR Associates will be attending an RSC sponsored one day symposium on "Reaction Monitoring Using NMR and Vibrational spectroscopy - An Industrial Perspective". The meeting will be held at the Pfizer Research Center in Sandwich, Kent, UK on March 22, 2011. Dr Edwards will be presenting a poster entitled "Practical Applications of Compact High-Resolution 60 MHz Permanent Magnet NMR Systems for Reaction Monitoring and Online Process Control". The abstract of the talk is presented below: For the past two decades high resolution 1H NMR at 60 MHz has been utilized to monitor the chemical physical properties of refinery and petrochemical feed-streams and products. These approaches involve the use of partial least squares regression modeling to correlate NMR spectral variability with ASTM and other official test methods, allowing the NMR to predict results of physical property tests or GC analysis. The analysis is performed in a stop flow environment where solenoid valves are closed at the beginning of the NMR experiment. This approach allows up to 5 or 6 different sample streams to be sent to the sample in order to maximize the impact of the instrument. The current work with these permanent magnet NMR systems…

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IFPAC Conference: Process NMR Associates and University of California, Davis to Present Process NMR and MRI Short Course Prior to Meeting

Short Course on Process NMR and MRI to be presented at the IFPAC Meeting (http://www.ifpac.com/) When: Monday, January17, 1:00pm to 5:00pm, and continues on Tuesday January 18, 8:00AM to 12 noon Location: Baltimore Marriott Waterfront Instructors: Michael J. McCarthy, Professor of Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA Paul J. Giammatteo, Ph.D., Process NMR Associates LLC, Danbury, CT The course is specifically designed and organized for industry professionals who want to add to their knowledge-base on magnetic resonance and process analytical technology. Topics include compositional analysis, rheological characterization, measurement of the state of mixing, visualizing transport and product stability as well as recent advances in process magnetic resonance sensors. This course will bring you up-to-date on the latest information concerning the applications and state-of-the art instrumentation for process magnetic resonance. Outline: * Introduction to Process NMR Magnetic resonance theory - Time-domain, High resolution, Diffusion, Imaging * Hardware - Spectrometers, magnets, probes * Coupling the sensor to the process * Applications will include: - Composition measurement - Property measurement - Rheology measurement - Product structure For Details contact Paul Giammatteo Tel: (203) 744-5905 or Michael McCarthy Tel: (530) 752 8921

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Diesel Production Control – Combination of NMR and Simulated Distillation to Yield On-Line Carbon Number Distributions

Process NMR Associates has developed a database of Simulated Distillation database on a large number of diesel fuels on our Shimadzu 2010-GC with SimDis Software. The analysis is being used to develop distillation prediction models for the process NMR systems as well as explore new avenues of control information that can be derived by combining carbon number distributions obtained from the GC data with the predictive capabilities of online NMR. For a PDF version of this application article download this: Combination of NMR and Simulated Distillation for Diesel Production Control Simulated distillation allows carbon number distributions to be calculated and in combination with chemistry observed in the NMR analysis the effect of aromatics and olefins on the paraffin distributios can be estimated. Online NMR predictions can be established that yield real-time carbon number distributions for production control and sulfur species monitoring. Contact: Paul Giammatteo Tel: +1 (203) 744-5905 Process NMR Associates Website

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Extensive NMR Diesel Database Enhances NMR Model Performance for Unit Control and Product Manufacturing

An extensive database (10 years) of diesel samples incorporating all refining processes (distillation through product blending) enables development of robust, wide ranging property predictions independent of crude sources and refinery processing. Consistent attention to data integrity enables expanding model ranges well beyond any typical single unit or process operation. The following slides elucidate the consistency in spectra whether obtained 10 years ago or last week, from within a refinery or on a laboratory spectrometer. If you are interested in finding out more about NMR and diesel production control contact Paul Giammatteo or phone him at +1 (203) 744-5905 - see the Process NMR Associates website for further information

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Schering-Plough Corporation Seeks Process Analytical Technology Manager

Title: Process Analytical Technology (PAT) Manager Description: Implement Process Analytical Technology (PAT) throughout all the Global Quality Sites to identification of incoming materials and monitor manufacturing processes. Work directly with the sites and Schering Plough Research Institute to help support / initiate the development, validation, and deployment of PAT at the sites. Review, evaluate, implement, and manage PAT activities. Provide guidance / technical help to the sites to conduct evaluation and purchase commercial PAT related analytical equipment (e.g. NIR / FT-NIR, Raman / FT-Raman, IR / FT - IR etc.). Maintain analytical instruments in the lab to comply with cGMP standards and requirements. Train and mentor laboratory staff on PAT to generate analytical data for routine experiments. Generate network and infrastructures with various sites of the corporation. Take full ownership / responsibility and provide effective, meaningful, result driven and pro-active leadership on all PAT projects. Responsible to transfer knowledge / technology of PAT related projects and activities to sites. Job is located in New Jersey. Respectfully, Vincent L. Graziano Recruiting Manager / Global Staffing Schering-Plough Corporation 556 Morris Avenue, S1-1 Summit, N.J. 07901 Ph: 908-473-2745 Fx: 908-473-2793 Ph: 908-298-5232 (Kenilworth) Careers: Employment Opportunities email: vincent.graziano@spcorp.com 

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The Wood-Based Biorefinery in a Petroleum Depleted World

The Mid-Hudson Section of the American Chemical Society and Vassar College Announce The Wood-Based Biorefinery in a Petroleum Depleted World Dr. Arthur J. Stipanovic, Professor and Chair, Department of Chemistry State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF) Wednesday, November 7th, 2007 Time: 7:00 pm Location: Mudd Chemistry Building, Third Floor Refreshments will be served at 6:30 pm Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, New York Contact: Dr Joseph Tanski (jotanski@vassar.edu, 845-437-7503) Abstract: The 21st century is envisioned to become the age of biology as renewable biomass resources replace petroleum in energy and industrial product applications. Motivated by concerns over national energy security, global CO2 reduction, a need for biodegradable products, and enhanced rural economic development, the engineering and construction of biorefineries for the manufacture of fuels, chemicals, polymeric materials and power from renewable resources is now a critical national priority. The context and intent of a biorefinery must be much more than simply replacing crude oil with renewable raw materials. A successful biorefinery must: 1) efficiently separate its raw material source into individual components, and, 2) be able to convert these components into marketplace products. The biorefinery must mirror the efficiency of today's modern petrochemical refinery in using…

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